Tribal Textiles from
South East Asia
Thailand,Laos, Myanmar( Burma), Indonesia
The ancient art of hand weaving fabric has its roots in the primary obvious purpose to cloth the human body although a need for ornamentation creeps into any clothing tradition. There is a dramatic difference between textiles woven for every day use & those woven for ceremonial use, the most common occasions for this being: weddings, births, deaths, festivals & spirit worship rites.
The back-strap loom, a conveniently portable weaving mechanism, was the earliest form of loom. To this day, some cultures in areas away from major population centers continue to produce textiles by this means. The most ancient form of weaving involved a continuous warp with patterns created on the warp threads.
While the origin of loom weaving is unknown, it is assumed to have been introduced in ancient times. Its antiquity can be inferred by the fact that some cultures possess legends about weaving.
A common theme about cloth that links Southeast Asian cultures is that woven cloth is rarely cut to the shape of the body but rather draped or folded.
Women were the weavers for home use & in the small cottage industry. Girls from an early age participated in steps of the process, starting with processing the fiber and spinning. Older woman, were specialists in certain types of dyes, such as indigo; these women were considered to have special powers over these dyes.
Patterns were the reserve of women of the family in some areas ,Eastern Sumba, handed down from generation to generation. The patterns were preserved as examples so that each generation could copy them. If there were no more female weavers in the family, the patterns were buried with the last known weaver rather than risk having these revealed to someone outside the line of descent...Ann Wright-Parsons
The legacy of the past is brought alive in the ancient symbols that live in these fabrics as living art.
In the tapestry of life we are all connected....Anita Moorjari
Thai silk is considered on of the the finest fabrics in the world.
Silk fabric is created mainly by Silkworm Moths called Bombyx Mori. These larvae are fed on
Mulberry leaves to produce the only natural fiber that is a filament fiber. This means that it can be one long continuous fiber if the conditions are products needed for manufacture are endless. The worm secretes a protein like substance when it enters its pupa stage of life. This protein is called Sericin and it is wrapped around the worm in a cocoon for protection. The most common method of harvesting Silk is to immerse the pupa in worm water and then cold water to soften the gum-like protein. The silk filament can then be refined and processed ready to be wound into skeins and then woven into various silk fabrics.
There are four types of Thai Silk: Brocaded, Dupioni, Mudmee and Plain Weave. The following Thai silk pieces are all of the first three types...there are no plain weaves here.
Brocaded Thai silk is a weave that gives the fabric an embossed or raised quality. The fabric is not at all smooth, but is raised in a manner that creates a pattern in and of itself.
Weaving brocaded silk requires the most expertise and patience of all the various silk weaves. A “sarong bolt” ,1 1/2 meters or 4' 11", of quality brocaded Thai silk may take a weaver up to a month to produce.
Dupioni silk intentionally has many fabric knots, bumps, nots, bulges and “fatties” which give the fabric great textile character. These fabric inconsistencies are called slubs and are crucial to recognizing authentic Thai silk from its counterfeits .
Classic dupioni silk is woven from silk yarns made from the dupion silk cocoon. A dupion silk cocoon is where two silkworms often jointed together inhabit a single cocoon. Dupion cocoons produce a very rough silk filament and so yarns made with dupion are rough and uneven.
Weaving with this “rough” silk yarn will yield a wonderfully textures fabric we call dupioni.
Thai Mudmee weaving,called Ikat weaving elsewhere,is done on old wood looms.
All Mudmee, which means tied together, fabric has a design or pattern on it...it is never a solid.
Standard woven fabric patterns are created by using different colors on both the horizontal ,weft yarns,and vertical, warp yarns, threads on a loom. The weaver can then create a desired fabric pattern from the multi-colored threads that her loom has been strung with.
Mudmee weaving creates a fabric pattern in a wholly different way. Mudmee weaving creates a pattern with only a single thread ,almost always a horizontal weft yarn.
Mudmee yarn prior is repeatedly dyed different colors, depending on how many colors are desired for the pattern.
The exact areas of a thread that are to be dyed a certain color, are controlled by a tie-dying method. These ties prevent the dye from affecting the thread underneath them, just like simply tie-dying does.
By this method, a skilled mudmee artisan,not always the weaver, can create dyed patterns for a single weft thread. The pattern is then revealed as the vertical and horizontal threads are woven together.
Mudmee threads are not tied and dyed individually. Mudmee patterns are almost always patterns that repeat themselves across a bolt of fabric. Therefore, the mudmee thread is carefully looped across a surface or board that is proportional to the desired width of the fabric. The pattern maker then will tie together a group of threads at precise intervals to create and replicate the desired mudmee patter.
Mudmee originated Isaan,in Northeast Thailand.Mudmee weaving is the oldest form of pattern weaving in Thailand and dates back approximately 3,000 years when sericulture ,silk production,was first introduced to this area.There are hundreds, if not thousands of mudmee fabric designs. In the past, each weaving village in Isaan would have their own patterns unique to a specific village. Mudmee fabric can be either silk or cotton.
Plain weave Thai silk is a smooth ,not soft, textured fabric, unlike brocaded silk. Shimmering, an attribute for which Thai silk is famous, is usually easily seen in plain weaves. Undulate the fabric slowly and you’ll see it changing colors. This effect is done by using different colored silk yarns for the vertical ,the warp,and horizontal ,the weft....from mythailand.blog
We sleep, but the loom of life never stops, and the pattern which was weaving when the sun went down is weaving when it comes up in the morning...Henry Ward Beecher
Naiyanee: Mudmee Pastels
These Brocaded silk pieces are added to the bottom of Phasin Tiin Joks ,a long fabric which is often wrapped around the waist like a skirt or a sarong. They are called Teen Jok, bottom of skirt.
Embodied in every intricate weave of the phasin tiin jok is the history of the Lanna women, from the matriarchal grip they had on society to their eventual descent into the passivity of patriarchal modernity. Lanna people are the people of Chiang Mai
Every Phasin Tin Jok has its own story. Throughout the changes in Lanna’s history, it has steadfastly remained a creative and exquisite expression of these people’s identity and heritage. Every pattern represents a diversity of motifs behind Lanna culture and the phasin tiin jok is one of the reasons why the ancient northern kingdom is celebrated for its beauty in art and culture.